Rodgers, G. M., & Mahajerin, A. (2023). Antithrombin Therapy: Current State and Future Outlook. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, 29, 10760296231205279. https://doi.org/10.1177/10760296231205279
Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant pivotal in inactivating serine protease enzymes in the coagulation cascade, making it a potent inhibitor of blood clot formation. AT also possesses anti-inflammatory properties by influencing anticoagulation and directly interacting with endothelial cells. Hereditary AT deficiency is one of the most severe inherited thrombophilias, with up to 85% lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism. Acquired AT deficiency arises during heparin therapy or states of hypercoagulability like sepsis and premature infancy. Optimization of AT levels in individuals with AT deficiency is an important treatment consideration, particularly during high-risk situations such as surgery, trauma, pregnancy, and postpartum. Here, we integrate the existing evidence surrounding the approved uses of AT therapy, as well as potential additional patient populations where AT therapy has been considered by the medical community, including any available consensus statements and guidelines. We also describe current knowledge regarding cost-effectiveness of AT concentrate in different contexts. Future work should seek to identify specific patient populations for whom targeted AT therapy is likely to provide the strongest clinical benefit.