Bader, S. O., Marinaro, X. F., Stone, G., Lodaya, K., Spears, J. B., & Shander, A. (2023). Antithrombin concentrates may benefit cardiopulmonary bypass patients with suspected heparin resistance: A retrospective analysis of real-world data. Heliyon, 9(9), e19497. doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e19497
Heparin resistance is a common complication of surgical patients requiring anticoagulation, such as those undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Treatments to address heparin resistance include supplementation of antithrombin (AT) or fresh frozen plasma (FFP). This retrospective database analysis compared key outcomes in suspected heparin-resistant patients undergoing CPB treated with AT or FFP.
De-identified United States electronic health records (Cerner Health Facts®) were queried. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9/10) codes were used to determine CPB procedures and FFP administration. AT administration was identified using medication data, while a combination of lab and medication data examining activated clotting times detected heparin resistance in FFP patients. Adult inpatients (≥18 years old) seen between 2001 and 2018 were included. Differences in mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and hospital-free days (using a 30-day post-discharge period) were assessed with univariate models as well as adjusted logistic regression models controlling for patient characteristics and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores.
Of the 502 patients identified, 247 received AT and 255 received FFP. The FFP cohort was associated with a higher CCI compared to the AT cohort (3.3 ± 2.4 vs. 2.3 ± 2.0, P < .001). The AT cohort was associated with a 71% (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.29, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: P = .003) and 66% (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: P = .01) reduction in mortality when compared to FFP using univariate and adjusted logistic regression models, respectively. Similarly, use of AT also showed a 22% shorter ICU LOS (P = .02) and 10% more hospital-free days in the 30 days following discharge (P = .004) according to the univariate models, though statistical significance was absent within adjusted models in both ICU LOS (P = .08) and hospital-free days (P = .53).
Compared to FFP, AT use suggests a reduction in the odds of mortality in suspected heparin-resistant patients undergoing CPB, though larger prospective studies are necessary to elucidate potential differences in hospital-free days or ICU LOS across treatment modalities.