Fishman, J., Kuranz, S., Yeh, M. M., Brzozowski, K., & Chen, H. (2023). Changes in Hematologic Lab Measures Observed in Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Treated with C5 Inhibitors, Ravulizumab and Eculizumab: Real-World Evidence from a US Based EMR Network. Hematology Reports, 15(2), 266-282. https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep15020027
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare acquired hematologic disorder, can be treated with C5 inhibitors (C5i) such as eculizumab or ravulizumab. This retrospective study is the first to describe real-world treatment patterns and changes in hematologic PNH-monitoring laboratory tests among C5i-treated US patients. Data were extracted from TriNetX Dataworks Network and included patients with a PNH diagnosis between 1 January 2010, and 20 August 2021. Patients were stratified into three cohorts based on their C5i usage: eculizumab, ravulizumab (prior eculizumab), and ravulizumab (eculizumab naïve). Hematological markers (hemoglobin [Hb], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and absolute reticulocyte count [ARC]) and relevant clinical events (e.g., breakthrough hemolysis [BTH], complement-amplifying conditions [CAC], thrombosis, infection, and all-cause mortality) were captured any time within 12 months post-index treatment. Of the 143 (eculizumab), 43 (ravulizumab, prior eculizumab), and 33 (ravulizumab, eculizumab naïve) patients, mean age across cohorts was 42–51 years, 55–61% were female, 63–73% were White, and 33–40% had aplastic anemia. Among all cohorts 12 months post-C5i treatment, 50–82% remained anemic, 8–32% required ≥1 transfusion, and 13–59% had BTH, of which 33%-54% had CACs. Additionally, thrombosis was seen in 7–15% of patients, infection in 20–25%, and mortality in 1–7%. These findings suggest many C5i-treated patients experience suboptimal disease control.