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Sex disparities in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis

Sex disparities in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis

Lowenstern, A., Sheridan, P., Wang, T. Y., Boero, I., Vemulapalli, S., Thourani, V. H., Leon, M. B., Peterson, E. D., & Brennan, J. M. (2021). Sex disparities in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. American Heart Journal237, 116–126.

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Background: We evaluated whether there is equitable distribution across sexes of treatment and outcomes for aortic valve replacement (AVR), via surgical (SAVR) or transcatheter (TAVR) methods, in symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (ssAS) patients.

Methods: Using de-identified data, we identified 43,822 patients with ssAS (2008-2016). Multivariate competing risk models were used to determine the likelihood of any AVR, while accounting for the competing risk of death. Association between sex and 1-year mortality, stratified by AVR status, was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression models with AVR as a time-dependent variable.

Results: Among patients with ssAS, 20,986 (47.9%) were female. Females were older (median age 81 vs. 78, P<0.001), more likely to have body mass index <20 (8.5% vs. 3.5%), and home oxygen use (4.4% vs. 3.4%, P<0001 for all). Overall, 12,129 (27.7%) patients underwent AVR for ssAS. Females were less likely to undergo AVR compared with males (24.1% vs. 31.0%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.83), but when treated, were more likely to undergo TAVR (37.9% vs. 30.9%, adjusted HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.15-1.27). Untreated females and males had similarly high rates of mortality at 1 year (31.1% vs. 31.3%, adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.03). Among those undergoing AVR, females had significantly higher mortality (10.2% vs. 9.4%, adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), driven by increased SAVR-associated mortality (9.0% vs. 7.6%, adjusted HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.21-1.69).

Conclusions: Treatment rates for ssAS patients remain suboptimal with disparities in female treatment.