Matthew Brennan, J., Leon, M. B., Sheridan, P., Boero, I. J., Chen, Q., Lowenstern, A., Thourani, V., Vemulapalli, S., Thomas, K., Wang, T. Y., & Peterson, E. D. (2020). Racial Differences in the Use of Aortic Valve Replacement for Treatment of Symptomatic Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis in the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Era. Journal of the American Heart Association, 9(16), e015879. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015879
Background: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is a life‐saving treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis. We sought to determine whether transcatheter AVR has resulted in a more equitable treatment rate by race in the United States.
Methods and Results: A total of 32 853 patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis were retrospectively identified via Optum’s deidentified electronic health records database (2007–2017). AVR rates in non‐Hispanic Black and White patients were assessed in the year after diagnosis. Multivariate Fine‐Gray hazards models were used to evaluate the likelihood of AVR by race, with adjustment for patient factors and the managing cardiologist. Time‐trend and 1‐year symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis survival analyses were also performed. From 2011 to 2016, the rate of AVR increased from 20.1% to 37.1%. Overall, Black individuals were less likely than Whites to receive AVR (22.9% versus 31.0%; unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.62–0.79; fully adjusted HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67–0.85). Yet, during 2015 to 2016, AVR racial differences were attenuated (29.5% versus 35.2%; adjusted HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74–1.02) because of greater uptake of transcatheter AVR in Blacks than Whites (53.4% of AVRs versus 47.3%; P=0.128). Untreated patients had significantly higher 1‐year mortality than those treated (adjusted HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53–0.61), which was consistent by race (interaction P value=0.52).
Conclusions: Although transcatheter AVR has increased the use of AVR in the United States, treatment rates remain low. Black patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis were less likely than White patients to receive AVR, yet these differences have recently narrowed.